Melasma: what it is and how to treat it

Sun exposure without sunscreen is one of the main contributors to many skin problems, including melasma
(the appearance of dark spots on the face), in addition to the sun, there are other reasons that favor the
appearance of these unpleasant spots. In this post we reveal everything about melasma, check out below.

What is melasma?

Melasma

Melasma is a chronic condition that causes the appearance of dark spots on the face, especially on the nose,
cheeks, chin, forehead and lips, sometimes it can also appear on the arms, neck and chest. These spots are dark
or brownish and have irregular shapes and sizes, they can appear on the face in different parts, women are the
ones who suffer most from these spots, especially those who live in places with ultraviolet radiation.
There are different types of melasma that are:

Dermal melasma: when melasma reaches the dermis (deepest layer of skin) located between the epidermis and the hypodermis, this makes the spots difficult to be treated.

Epidermal melasma: in this case the melasma reaches the epidermis (first layer of the skin), it is a little lighter and easier to be treated.

Mixed melasma: these are the spots that affect the epidermis and dermis.

Causes of melasma

Melasma

There is not a single cause that necessarily causes the appearance of melasma, but there are some factors that
can influence and cause the spots to appear. Some of these causes are:

  • Genetics: unfortunately this is a genetic predisposition, if someone in your family suffers from melasmas, it is possible that you also suffer, so you must be even more careful to prevent the appearance of these spots.
  • Sun exposure without sunscreen: as mentioned above, the sun is one of the factors that contribute to the appearance of dark spots on the skin, because UV rays increase the production of melanin and if it is unprotected, melasma or even another type appears of stain. To avoid this, always use sunscreen suitable for your skin.
  • Blue light: the light from the cell phone, computer or any other device/environment seems harmless, right?
    But it’s not, these lights are the cause of various skin diseases and blemishes like melasma, it penetrates deeply into
    the skin and is more difficult to treat. For an environment where you will be exposed to blue light, apply
    sunscreen (preferably that has color because they protect more).

+ Also read: How to maintain a skin care routine at home?

  • Birth control pill: the birth control pill influences the health of women’s bodies and, depending on which one is used, it can even cause dark spots on the skin, especially for women who are constantly exposed to the sun without sunscreen. If melasma develops on your skin from the pill, immediately discontinue use and consult your doctor.
  • Pregnancy hormones: during pregnancy, melasmas may appear on the skin, which are called chloasma gravidarum and arise because of the increase in the hormones estrogen and progesterone.In this case, the spots can appear around the eyes, mouth and other places on the face and body, these spots can still continue after pregnancy, they can disappear with the use of sunscreen daily and dermatological monitoring.

How to prevent?

Even if you use whitening creams or do great treatments, melasma is difficult to be treated and does not go
away completely depending on the type, so the best way to avoid these spots is to prevent yourself beforehand
and take the necessary care to avoid the appearance of these spots dark. Here are some habits you can have to prevent yourself.

Use sunscreen daily: this is the essential step, the sun is one of the causes of melasma and it is essential that you use sunscreen daily to prevent spots, it is ideal for the sunscreen to have at least a factor of 30 and for exposure to blue light the color shield is the best. Reapply sunscreen throughout the day.

Use birth control pills with the correct dosage: talk to your doctor about this so he can recommend the right birth control pill for you that won’t affect your skin.

During pregnancy use sunscreen and antioxidants: pregnant women are the most likely to have melasma, after the third semester of pregnancy it is necessary to use sunscreen and antioxidants with medical advice.

How to treat?

There are still many questions about treatments for melasmas and how efficient they are, unfortunately melasma
has no cure, but depending on the type, it is possible to use active drugs and procedures to lighten the
spots and this is something that needs to be agreed between you and your dermatologist, you need to undergo
a treatment and continue caring correctly at home using products that have the actives that reduce and lighten the blemishes. It is important that you do this treatment during periods that you will not be exposed to the sun, winter is an excellent time to start, but rest assured that it is not a quick procedure, it takes a while to complete and you must do everything correctly.

Assets that decrease melasma

With medical supervision and during treatment, it is also necessary to take care of the skin at home for the treatment to be effective, for that you will have to use cosmetics that cause results and that have actives that work. The main assets you can find in dermocosmetics for the treatment of melasma are:

Azelaic Acid: whitener that inhibits the enzyme tyrosinase, it is safer against long-term adverse effects.

Tranexamic acid: decreases melanin synthesis, acts on inflammation, vascularization and reduces skin redness. Treatment can be topical, oral or intradermal.

Glycolic Acid: acid that acts as a cell renovator, it is able to remove melanin from the cornea (outer layer of the epidermis), improves skin hydration and is great for lightening.

In addition to these acids, vitamin C, white clay and hydroquinone are excellent in combating dark spots on the skin, but remember to use this only after medical advice.

Melasma takes a lot of trouble to take care of and the best way to avoid them is to prevent yourself, always use sunscreen, avoid being exposed to the sun, I have good habits that the chances of these spots appearing on your skin are lower.

Do you have melasma? Have you had any treatment? Tell us in the comments!

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